The Incoterms rules or International Commercial Terms are a series of pre-defined commercial terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) that are widely used in International commercial transactions or procurement processes. A series of three-letter trade terms related to common contractual sales practices, the Incoterms rules are intended primarily to clearly communicate the tasks, costs, and risks associated with the transportation and delivery of goods.
The Incoterms rules are accepted by governments, legal authorities, and practitioners worldwide for the interpretation of most commonly used terms in international trade. They are intended to reduce or remove altogether uncertainties arising from different interpretation of the rules in different countries. As such they are regularly incorporated into sales contracts worldwide.
First published in 1936, the Incoterms rules have been periodically updated, with the eighth version— Incoterms® 2010 —having been published on January 1, 2011. "Incoterms" is a registered trademark of the ICC.
EXW – Ex Works (named place of delivery)
The buyer arranges the pickup of the freight from the supplier's designated ship site, owns the in-transit freight, and is responsible for clearing the goods through Customs. The buyer is responsible for completing all the export documentation. Cost of goods sold transfers from the seller to the buyer.
FCA - Free Carrier (named place of delivery)
When used in trade terms, the word "free" means the seller has an obligation to deliver goods to a named place for transfer to a carrier. Contracts involving international transportation often contain abbreviated trade terms that describe matters such as the time and place of delivery and payment, when the risk of loss shifts from the seller to the buyer, and who pays the costs of freight and insurance.
CPT – Carriage Paid To (named place of destination)
This term is used for all kind of shipments.
CIP – Carriage and Insurance Paid to (named place of destination)
DAT – Delivered at Terminal (named terminal at port or place of destination)
DAP – Delivered at Place (named place of destination)
DDP – Delivered Duty Paid (named place of destination)
The seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the buyer's vessel at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that moment. The FAS term requires the seller to clear the goods for export, which is a reversal from previous Incoterms versions that required the buyer to arrange for export clearance. However, if the parties wish the buyer to clear the goods for export, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale. This term can be used only for sea or inland waterway transport.
SEA AND INLAND WATERWAY TRANSPORT:
FAS – Free Alongside Ship (named port of shipment)
FOB – Free on Board (named port of shipment)
It means the seller pays for transportation of goods to the port of shipment, loading cost. The buyer pays cost of marine freight transportation, insurance, unloading and transportation cost from the arrival port to destination. The passing of risk occurs when the goods are in buyer account. the buyer arranges for the vessel and the shipper has to load the goods and the named vessel at the named port of shipment with the dates stipulated in the contract of sale as informed by the buyer.
CFR – Cost and Freight (named port of destination)
Exactly the same as CFR except that the seller must in addition procure and pay for the insurance. Maritime transport only.
CIF – Cost, Insurance and Freight (named port of destination)